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历年ACT真题科学部分词汇汇总大全 (上)

发布日期:12-13 17:49 分类:ACT科学 阅读次数:58

摘要acceleration— The rate that velocity changes per unit time and the direction it changes in. Com ...

accelerationThe rate that velocity changes per unit time and the direction it changes in. Computed from the change in velocity divided by tire change in time. Common units are meters per second squared (m/s2 )

acceleration due to gravityThe acceleration of an object that is only ACTed on by the force of the Earth's gravity. This value is given the symbol g and near the surface of the Earth it has a value of approximately 9.8 m/s2. The direction of the acceleration due to gravity is vertically downward.

accuracyThe closeness of an experimental measurement to the accepted or theoretical value.

acidA substance that is a proton donor. The pH of an acid is less than 7. 

analysis— A stage in the scientific method where patterns of observations are made. 

antioxidantany substance that inhibits oxidation, including vitamin E, vitamin C, or beta carotene, and is thought to protect the body from the damaging effects of oxidation

aqueous solutionA solution in which the solvent is water. 

arteriesThe vascular tissue which carries blood away from the heart. 

astronomyThe study of planets, stars, and space.

atomThe smallest structure that has tire properties of an element. Atoms contain positively charged protons and uncharged neutrons in the nucleus. Negatively charged electrons orbit around the nucleus.

ATP(Adenosine Triphosphate.)A chemical that is considered to be the "fuel" or energy source for an organism.

atriaThe chambers of the heart that receive blood.

baseA substance that is a proton acceptor. The pH of a base is greater than 7. 

bacteria one-celled organisms that are involved in fermentation, putrefaction, and infectious diseases

calibrationThe examination of the performance of an instrument in an experiment whose outcomes are known, for the purpose of accounting for the inaccuracies inherent in the instrument in future experiments whose outcomes are not known. 

capillariesVascular tissue that receives blood from the arterioles and releases the blood to the venules.

catalystAn agent that changes the rate of a reaction, without itself being altered by the reaction.

celestial equatorThe extension of the Earth's equator out onto the celestial sphere. 

celestial polesTire extension of the Earth's north and south pole onto the celestial sphere.

celestial sphereThe imaginary sphere onto which all the stars are viewed as being on for the purposes of locating them.

cell membraneAn organelle found in all cells that acts as the passageway through which materials can pass in and out. This organelle is highly selectively permeable, only allowing materials to pass through that it "chooses" chemically.

cell wallAn organelle found primarily in plant cells and fungi cells, and also some bacteria. The cell wall is a strong structure that provides protection, support, and allows materials to pass in and out without being selectively permeable.

centripetalforce— The net force that acts to result in the centripetal acceleration. It is not an individual force, but the sum of the forces in the radial direction. It is directed toward the center of the circular motion.

chemical changeA process that Involves the formation or breaking of chemical bonds.

chromosomeAn organelle that contains the entire DNA of the organism. 

componentThe part of a vector that lies in the horizontal or vertical direction. 

compoundA substance composed of more than one element that has a definite composition and distinct physical and chemical properties.

concentrationA measure of the amount of solute that is present in a solution. A solution that contains very little solute is called dilute. A solution that contains a relatively large amount of solute is said to be concentrated.

conclusionThe last stage of the scientific method where explanations are made about why the patterns identified in the analysis section occurred.

concentric modelTire model of the solar system that places the Earth at the center with the planets and the Sun orbiting around it.

constellationAn apparent grouping of stars in the sky that is used for identification purposes. These stars are not necessarily near each other in space since they are not necessarily the same distance from the Earth.

continental riftThe region on a continent where new crust is being created, and the plates on either side of the rift are moving apart.

convergent boundaryA boundary between two of the Earth's plates that are moving toward each other.

cosmologyThe study of the formation of the universe.

crystalA solid in which atoms or molecules have a regular repeated arrangement. 

currentThe flow of charge past a point per unit time; it is measured in Amperes(A).

cuticleThe top layer on a leaf. It Is a non-living layer consisting primarily of wax that is produced by the epithelium, a cell layer directly underneath.

cytoplasmA jelly-like substance located in the cell where all of the internal organelles can be found. The cytoplasm consists primarily of water and supports the cell and its organelles.

cytoskeletonOrganelles that are the internal "bones" of the cell. They exist in thick and thin tubules.

decibelA unit of measure for the relative intensity of sounds.

decimationThe celestial coordinate similar to that of latitude on the Earth. Declination measures how many degrees, minutes, and seconds north or south of the celestial equator an object is.

delta— A fan shaped deposit of material at the mouth of a river.

densityThe mass of a substance for a given unit volume. A common unit of density is grams per milliliter (g/ml).

displacementThe change in position of an object. Computed from the final position minus the initial position. Common units of measure are meters (m). 

divergent boundaryA boundary between two of the Earth's plates that are moving away from each other.

DNAContains all genetic material for an organism. The smallest units of DNA are called nucleotides.

eclipticThe apparent path of the Sun across the sky over the course of a year. 

electric potential energyThe energy due to an object's position within an electric field.

electromagnetic waveA light wave that has an electric field component and a magnetic field component. An electromagnetic wave does not require a medium to travel through.

electrostatic forceThe force that exists between particles due to their charge. Particles of like charge repel, particles of unlike charge attract.

elementThe smallest entity that has distinct chemical properties. It can not be decomposed by ordinary chemical reactions.

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